Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory

KAIRA TECHNICAL  :  Summary  |  Parameters  |  Array  |  Radars  |  Data products  |  Software  |  Tutorials

Technical parameters

The following are the engineeing details and specifications of the Kilpisjärvi Atmospheric Imaging Receiver Array (KAIRA).

Standard reference paper

There is a reference paper describing KAIRA. It serves as an introduction to the KAIRA facility, its technical capability and provides an open-access, standard reference paper for anyone referring to the KAIRA instrument or data in their own thesis or publication.


Location near Kilpisjärvi, Enontekiö
Country Finland
Owned by University of Oulu
Operated by Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory,
University of Tromsø, Norway,
and volunteer support
Receiver Units (RCUs) 96
Remote Station Processor (RSP) boards 12
RCU modes used 0,3,4,5,6,7
RCU modes available, but not used 1,2
Sample clock frequency 160 or 200 MHz
Raw sample type 12-bit
Transport sample type 4-, 8-, or 16-bit
Subbands (frequnecy channels) 512
Beamlets 244 (12-bit mode) or
488 (8-bit mode) or
976 (4-bit mode, limited)


Array parameters

The following are the parameters on an array basis. Note that it is possible to mix parts of the array for combined experiments.

Array parameters LBAHBA
Number of antennas 48 47
Antenna type Inverted-V dipoles 16-element tiles
Polarisation per antenna 2 2
Array layout sparse, quasi-random segmented rectangular
Array physical size (approx.) 34 m diameter 30 x 50 m
Array alignment symmetrical 314 degrees
Minimum frequency 10 MHz 110 MHz
Maximum frequency 90 MHz 270 MHz
RCU modes RCU3 & RCU4 RCU5, RCU6 & RCU7
Beam-forming digital analogue in each tile
digital over array
Elevation limit 20 degrees 20 degrees
Longitude of array centre (deg East) 20.7620758 20.76103311
Latitude of array centre (deg North) 69.0707445 69.0710561
Altitude of array centre GK (m) 493.123 495.086
Altitude of array centre GRS (m) 523.371 525.336
Geocentric-X coordinate (m) 2136833.225 2136818.264
Geocentric-Y coordinate (m) 810088.740 810038.592
Geocentric-Z coordinate (m) 5935285.279 5935299.531

The array altitude is provided with two references 'GK' is to the ETRS-GK27(N60) and 'GRS' is EUREF-FIN Geographic-3D/GRS80

For detailed phased-array coordinate information, see the array information page.

See also:

Last modified: 13 February 2020, 12:08:25.

Data privacy notice