Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory

SIC Publications

The following refereed papers have made use of the SIC model. The names of the members of the SIC team are marked in bold font. Furthermore, a large number of conference abstracts and proceedings papers have been omitted from this list.


  1. Miyoshi, Y., K. Hosokawa, S. Kurita, S.-I. Oyama, Y. Ogawa, S. Saito, I. Shinohara, A. Kero, E. Turunen, P.T. Verronen, S. Kasahara, S. Yokota, T. Mitani, T. Takashima, N. Higashio, Y. Kasahara, S. Matsuda, F. Tsuchiya, A. Kumamoto, A. Matsuoka, T. Hori, K. Keika, M. Shoji, M. Teramoto, S. Imajo, C. Jun, and S. Nakamura, Penetration of MeV electrons into the mesosphere accompanying pulsating aurorae, Nature Sci. Rep., 11, 13724, 2021. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-92611-3
  2. Xu, W., Marshall, R. A., Kero, A., and Sousa, A. (2021). Chemical response of the upper atmosphere due to lightning-induced electron precipitation. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126, e2021JD034914.
  3. Palmroth, M., Grandin, M., Sarris, T., Doornbos, E., Tourgaidis, S., Aikio, A., Buchert, S., Clilverd, M.A., Dandouras, I., Heelis, R., Hoffmann, A., Ivchenko, N., Kervalishvili, G., Knudsen, D.J., Kotova, A., Liu, H.-L., Malaspina, D.M., March, G., Marchaudon, A., Marghitu, O., Matsuo, T., Miloch, W.J., Moretto-Jorgensen, T., Mpaloukidis, D., Olsen, N., Papadakis, K., Pfaff, R., Pirnaris, P., Siemes, C., Stolle, C., Suni, J., van den IJssel, J., Verronen, P.T., Visser, P., and Yamauchi, M., Lower thermosphere-ionosphere (LTI) quantities: Current status of measuring techniques and models, Ann. Geophys., 39, 189-237, 2021. doi: 10.5194/angeo-2020-42


  1. Tesema, F., Partamies, N., Nesse Tyssøy, H., Kero, A., and Smith-Johnsen, C., Observations of electron precipitation during pulsating aurora and its chemical impact, J. Geophys. Res. Space, 125, e2019JA027713, 2020. doi: 10.1029/2019JA027713


  1. Marshall RA, Xu W, Kero A, Kabirzadeh R and Sanchez E (2019) Atmospheric Effects of a Relativistic Electron Beam Injected From Above: Chemistry, Electrodynamics, and Radio Scattering. Front. Astron. Space Sci. 6:6. doi: 10.3389/fspas.2019.00006


  1. Xu, W., Marshall, R. A., Fang, X., Turunen, E., and Kero, A. (2018). On the effects of Bremsstrahlung radiation during energetic electron precipitation. Geophysical Research Letters, 45, 1167– 1176.
  2. Newnham, D.A., M.A. Clilverd, C.J. Rodger, K. Hendrickx, L. Megner, A.J. Kavanagh, A. Seppälä, P.T. Verronen, M.E. Andersson, D.R. Marsh, T. Kovács, W. Feng, and J.M.C. Plane, Observations and modelling of increased nitric oxide in the Antarctic polar middle atmosphere associated with geomagnetic storm driven energetic electron precipitation, J. Geophys. Res. Space, 123, 6009-6025, 2018. doi: 10.1029/2018JA025507
  3. Seppälä, A., E. Douma, C.J. Rodger, P.T. Verroneni, M.A. Clilverd, and J. Bortnik, Electron microburst events: modeling the atmospheric impact, Geophys. Res. Lett., 45, 2018. doi: 10.1002/2017GL075949


  1. Sivadas, N., Semeter, J., Nishimura, Y., and Kero, A. (2017). Simultaneous measurements of substorm-related electron energization in the ionosphere and the plasma sheet. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 122, 10,528– 10,547.
  2. Grandin, M., A. Kero, N. Partamies, D. McKay, D. Whiter, A. Kozlovsky, and Y. Miyoshi, Observation of pulsating aurora signatures in cosmic noise absorption data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 5292-5300, 2017. doi: 10.1002/2017GL073901


  1. Kovács, T., Plane, J. M. C., Feng, W., Nagy, T., Chipperfield, M. P., Verronen, P. T., Andersson, M. E., Newnham, D. A., Clilverd, M. A., and Marsh, D. R.: D-region ion–neutral coupled chemistry (Sodankylä Ion Chemistry, SIC) within the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM 4) – WACCM-SIC and WACCM-rSIC, Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3123–3136,, 2016.
  2. Baumann, C., M. Rapp, and A. Kero. Secondary electron emission from meteoric smoke particles inside the polar ionosphere. Annales Geophysicae, 34(6):573-580,2016
  3. Rogers, N.C., Kero, A., Honary, F., Verronen, P.T., Warrington, E.M. and Danskin, D.W., Improving the twilight model for polar cap absorption nowcasts, Space Weather, 14, 2016. doi: 10.1002/2016SW001527
  4. Verronen, P.T., Andersson, M.E., Marsh, D.R., Kovács, T. and Plane, J.M.C., WACCM-D – Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model with D-region ion chemistry, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 8, 954–975,, 2016.
  5. Turunen, E., Kero, A., Verronen, P.T., Miyoshi, Y., Oyama, S. and Saito, S., Mesospheric ozone destruction by high-energy electron precipitation associated with pulsating aurora, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 11852-11861, 2016. doi: 10.1002/2016JD025015
  6. Clilverd, M.A., C. J. Rodger, M. E. Andersson, P. T. Verronen, and A. Seppälä, Linkages between the radiation belts, polar atmosphere and climate: electron precipitation through wave particle interactions, chapter in book Waves, Particles and Storms in Geospace, edited by G. Balasis, I. A. Daglis, and I. R. Mann, Oxford University Press, ISBN: 9780198705246, 2016.


  1. Verronen, P.T. and Lehmann, R., Enhancement of odd nitrogen modifies mesospheric ozone chemistry during polar winter, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 10445–10452,, 2015.
  2. Baumann, C., M. Rapp, M. Anttila, A. Kero, and P. T. Verronen, Effects of meteoric smoke particles on the D-region ion-chemistry, J. Geophys. Res., 120, 2015. doi: 10.1002/2015JA021927
  3. Clilverd, M. A., R. Duthie, R. Hardman, A. T. Hendry, C. J. Rodger, T. Raita, M. Engebretson, M. R. Lessard, D. Danskin, and D. K. Milling, Electron precipitation from EMIC waves: a case study from 31 May 2013, J. Geophys. Res., 120, 3618-3631, 2015. doi: 10.1002/2015JA021090
  4. Neal, J. J., C. J. Rodger, M. A. Clilverd, N. R. Thomson, T. Raita, and Th.Ulich, Long-term determination of energetic electron precipitation into the atmosphere from AARDDVARK subionospheric VLF observations, J. Geophys. Res., 120, 2194-2211, 2015. doi: 10.1002/2014JA020689
  5. Seppälä, A., M. A. Clilverd, M. J. Beharrell, C. J. Rodger, P. T. Verronen, M. E. Andersson and D. A. Newnham, Substorm-induced energetic electron precipitation: Impact on atmospheric chemistry, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 2015. doi: 10.1002/2015GL065523
  6. Miyoshi, Y., S. Oyama, S. Saito, S. Kurita, H. Fujiwara, R. Kataoka, Y. Ebihara, C. Kletzing, G. Reeves, O. Santolik, M. Clilverd, C. J. Rodger, E. Turunen, and F. Tsuchiya, Energetic electron precipitation associated with pulsating aurora: EISCAT and Van Allen Probe observations, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, 2015. doi: 10.1002/2014JA020690
  7. Verronen, P.T., Andersson, M.E., Kero, A., Enell, C.-F., Wissing, J.M., Talaat, E.R., Kauristie, K., Palmroth, M., Sarris, T.E. and Armandillo, E., Contribution of proton and electron precipitation to the observed electron concentration in October-November 2003 and September 2005, Ann. Geophys., 33, 381-394, 2015. doi: 10.5194/angeo-33-381-2015


  1. Kero, A., J. Vierinen, D. McKay-Bukowski, C.-F. Enell, M. Sinor, L. Roininen, and Y. Ogawa, Ionospheric electron density profiles inverted from a spectral riometer measurement, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 2014. doi: 10.1002/2014GL060986
  2. Andersson, M.E., Verronen, P.T., Rodger, C.J., Clilverd, M.A., and Wang S., Longitudinal hotspots in the mesospheric OH variations due to energetic electron precipitation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1095-1105, 2014. doi: 10.5194/acp-14-1095-2014


  1. Verronen, P.T. and Lehmann, R., Analysis and parameterisation of ionic reactions affecting middle atmospheric HOx and NOy during solar proton events, Ann. Geophys., 31, 909–956,, 2013.
  2. Baumann, C., Rapp, M., Kero, A., and Enell, C.-F., Meteor smoke influences on the D-region charge balance - review of recent in situ measurements and one-dimensional model results, Ann. Geophys., 31, 2049-2062, 2013. doi: 10.5194/angeo-31-2049-2013
  3. Verronen, P.T., Andersson, M.E., Rodger, C.J., Clilverd, M.A., Wang S., and Turunen, E., Comparison of modeled and observed effects of radiation belt electron precipitation on mesospheric hydroxyl and ozone, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 11419-11428, 2013. doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50845
  4. Cresswell-Moorcock, K., C. J. Rodger, A. Kero, A. B. Collier, M. A. Clilverd, I. Häggström, and T. Pitkänen, A reexamination of latitudinal limits of substorm-produced energetic electron precipitation, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 2013. doi: 10.1002/jgra.50598
  5. Newnham D. A., P. J. Espy, M. A. Clilverd, C. J. Rodger, A. Seppälä, D. J. Maxfield, P. Hartogh, K. Holmen, and R. B. Horne, Observations of nitric oxide in the Antarctic middle atmosphere during recurrent geomagnetic storms, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 2013. doi: 10.1002/2013JA019056


  1. Andersson, M. E., Verronen, P. T., Wang S., Rodger, C. J., Clilverd, M. A., and Carson, B. R., Precipitating radiation belt electrons and enhancements of mesospheric hydroxyl during 2004-2009, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D09304, 2012. doi: 10.1029/2011JD017246
  2. Rodger, C. J., Clilverd, M. A., Kavanagh, A. J., Watt, C. E. J., Verronen, P. T. and Raita, T., Contrasting the responses of three different ground-based instruments to energetic electron precipitation,, Radio Sci., 47, RS2021, 2012. doi: 10.1029/2011RS004971


  1. Verronen, P.T., Santee, M.L., Manney, G.L., Lehmann, R., Salmi, S.-M., and Seppälä, A., Nitric Acid Enhancements in the Mesosphere During the January 2005 and December 2006 Solar Proton Events, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D17301,, 2011.
  2. C.-F. Enell, B. Gustavsson, B. U. E. Brändström, T. Sergienko, P. T. Verronen, P. Rydesäter, and I. Sandahl, Tomography-like retrieval of auroral volume emission ratios for the 20080131 Hotel Payload 2 event, Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst. Discuss., 2, 1-21, 2011. doi: 10.5194/gid-2-1-2012
  3. Newnham, D., Espy, P., Clilverd, M. A., Rodger, C.J., Seppälä, A., Maxfield, D., Hartogh, P., Holmen, K., and Horne, R., Direct observations of nitric oxide produced by energetic electron precipitation into the Antarctic middle atmosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L20104, 2011.


  1. Clilverd, M. A., C. J. Rodger, S. Dietrich, T. Raita, Th.Ulich, E. Clarke, A. W. P. Thomson, and A. J. Kavanagh, High-latitude geomagnetically induced current events observed on very low frequency radio wave receiver systems., Radio Sci., 45, RS2006 1-11, 2010.
  2. Clilverd, M.A., C. J. Rodger, R. Gamble, Th.Ulich, T. Raita, A. Seppälä, J. Green, N. Thomson, J-A Sauvaud, M. Parrot, Ground-based estimates of outer radiation belt energetic electron precipitation fluxes into the atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 115, A12304 1-11, 2010.
  3. Rodger C. J., Clilverd M. A., Seppälä A., Thomson N. R., Gamble R. J., Parrot M., Sauvaud J., Ulich Th, Radiation belt electron precipitation due to geomagnetic storms: Significance to middle atmosphere ozone chemistry, J. Geophys., 115, A11320 1-12, 2010.


  1. Clilverd, M. A., A. Seppälä, C. J. Rodger, M. G. Mlynczak, and J. U. Kozyra, Additional stratospheric NOx production by relativistic electron precipitation during the 2004 spring NOx descent event, J. Geophys. Res., 114, A04305, 2009. doi: 10.1029/2008JA013472
  2. Clilverd, M. A., C. J. Rodger, N. R. Thomson, J. B. Brundell, Th. Ulich, J. Lichtenberger, N. Cobbett, A. B. Collier, F. W. Menk, A. Seppälä, P. T. Verronen, and E. Turunen, Remote sensing space weather events: the AARDDVARK network, Space Weather, 7, S04001, 2009. doi: 10.1029/2008SW000412
  3. Turunen, E., P. T. Verronen, A. Seppälä, C. J. Rodger, M. A. Clilverd, J. Tamminen, C.-F. Enell and Th.Ulich, Impact of different precipitation energies on NOx generation during geomagnetic storms, J. Atmos Sol.-Terr. Phys, 71, 1176-1189, 2009. doi: 10.1016/j.jastp.2008.07.005


  1. Verronen, P.T., B. Funke, M. Lopez-Puertas, G. B. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, N. Glatthor, C.-F. Enell, E. Turunen and J. Tamminen, About the increase of HNO3 in the stratopause region during the Halloween 2003 solar proton event, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L20809, 2008. doi: 10.1029/2008GL035312
  2. Kero, A., C.-F. Enell, A. J. Kavanagh, J. Vierinen, I. Virtanen, and E. Turunen, Could negative ion production explain the polar mesosphere winter echo (PMWE) modulation in active HF heating experiments?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L23102, 2008. doi: 10.1029/2008GL035798
  3. Kero, A., Ionospheric D-region studies by means of active heating experiments and modelling, PhD thesis, University of Oulu, Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory Publications, No. 102, 2008.
  4. Rodger, C. J., P. T. Verronen, M. A. Clilverd, A. Seppälä, and E. Turunen, Significance of the Carrington Event Solar Proton Event to the neutral atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D23302, 2008. doi: 10.1029/2008JD010702
  5. Seppälä, A., M. A. Clilverd, C. J. Rodger, P. T. Verronen, and E. Turunen, The Effects of Hard Spectra Solar Proton Events on the Middle Atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 113, A11311, 2008. doi: 10.1029/2008JA013517
  6. Neubert, T., M. Rycroft, T. Farges, E. Blanc, O. Chanrion, E. Arnone, A. Odzimek, N. Arnold, C.-F. Enell, E. Turunen, T. Bösinger, Á. Mika, C. Haldoupis, R. J. Steiner, O. van der Velde, S. Soula, P. Berg, F. Boberg, P. Thejll, B. Christiansen, M. Ignaccolo, M. Füllekrug, P. T. Verronen, J. Montanya, and N. Crosby, Recent results from studies of electric discharges in the mesosphere, Surveys in Geophysics, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 71-137, 2008. doi: 10.1007/s10712-008-9043-1
  7. Kero, A., J. Vierinen, C.-F. Enell, I. Virtanen, and E. Turunen, New incoherent scatter diagnostic methods for the heated D-region ionosphere, Ann. Geophys., 26, 2273-2279, 2008.
  8. Enell, C.-F., P. T. Verronen, M. J. Beharrell, J. P. Vierinen, A. Kero, A. Seppälä, F. Honary, Th.Ulich, and E. Turunen, Case study of the mesospheric and lower thermospheric effects of solar x-ray flares: Coupled ion-neutral modelling and comparison with EISCAT and riometer measurements, Ann. Geophys., 26, 2311-2321, 2008.
  9. Rodger, C. J., T. Raita, M. A. Clilverd, A. Seppälä, S. Dietrich, N. R. Thomson, and Th.Ulich, Observations of relativistic electron precipitation from the radiation belts driven by EMIC Waves, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L16106, 2008. doi: 10.1029/2008GL034804
  10. Rodger, C. J, A. Seppälä, and M. A. Clilverd, Significance of Transient Luminous Events to Neutral Chemistry: Experimental Measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L07803, 2008. doi: 10.1029/2008GL033221
  11. Enell, C.-F., E. Arnone, T. Adachi, O. Chanrion, P. T. Verronen, A. Seppälä, T. Neubert, Th.Ulich, E. Turunen, Y. Takahashi, and R.-R. Hsu, Parameterisation of the chemical effect of sprites in the middle atmosphere, Ann. Geophys., 26, 13-27, SRef-ID: 1432-0576/angeo/2008-26-13, 2008.


  1. Clilverd, M. A., C. J. Rodger, R. M. Millan, J. G. Sample, M. Kokorowski, M. P. McCarthy, Th.Ulich, T. Raita, A. J. Kavanagh, and E. Spanswick, Energetic particle precipitation into the middle atmosphere triggered by a coronal mass ejection, J. Geophys. Res., 112, A11210, 2007. doi: 10.1029/2007JA012395
  2. Kero, A., C.-F. Enell, Th.Ulich, E. Turunen, M. T. Rietveld, and F. H. Honary, Statistical signature of active D-region HF heating in IRIS riometer data from 1994-2004,, Ann. Geophys., 25, 407-415, 2007.
  3. Seppälä, A., Observations of production and transport of NOx formed by energetic particle precipitation in the polar night atmosphere, PhD thesis, University of Helsinki, Finnish Meteorological Institute Contributions, No. 62, 2007.
  4. Clilverd, M. A., Seppälä, A., Rodger, C. J., Thomson N.R., Lichtenberger, J., and Steinbach, P., Temporal variability of the descent of high-altitude NOx, J. Geophys. Res., 112, A09307, 2007. doi: 10.1029/2006JA012085
  5. Clilverd, M.A., Rodger, C.J., Moffat-Griffin, T. and Verronen, P.T., Improved dynamic geomagnetic rigidity cutoff modeling: testing predictive accuracy, J. Geophys. Res., 112, A08302, 2007. doi: 10.1029/2007JA012410
  6. Rodger, C.J., Clilverd, M.A., Nunn, D., Verronen, P.T., Bortnik, J. and Turunen, E., Storm time, short-lived bursts of relativistic electron precipitation detected by subionospheric radio wave propagation, J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 112, A07301, 2007. doi: 10.1029/2007JA012347
  7. Rodger, C.J., Enell, C.-F., Turunen, E., Clilverd, M.A., Thomson, N.R., and Verronen, P.T., Lightning-driven inner radiation belt energy deposition into the atmosphere: Implications for ionisation-levels and neutral chemistry, Ann. Geophys., 25, 1745-1757, 2007.
  8. Rodger, C.J., M. A. Clilverd, N. R. Thomson, R. J. Gamble, A. Seppälä, E. Turunen, N. P. Meredith, M. Parrot, J. Sauvaud, and J. Berthelier, Radiation belt electron precipitation into the atmosphere: recovery from a geomagnetic storm, J. Geophys. Res., 112, A11307, 2007. doi: 10.1029/2007JA012383
  9. Seppälä, A., Clilverd, M. A., and Rodger, C. J., NOx enhancements in the middle atmosphere during 2003-2004 polar winter: The relative significance of Solar Proton Events and the Aurora as a source, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D23303, 2007. doi: 10.1029/2006JD008326
  10. Seppälä, A., Verronen, P.T., Clilverd, M.A., Randall, C.E., Tamminen, J., Sofieva, V., Backman, L., and Kyrölä, E., Arctic and Antarctic polar winter NOx and energetic particle precipitation in 2002-2006, Geophys. Res. Lett.,, Vol. 34, No. 12, L12810, 2007. doi: 10.1029/2007GL029733
  11. Verronen, P.T., Rodger, C.J., Clilverd, M.A., Pickett, H.M. and Turunen, E., Latitudinal extent of the January 2005 solar proton event in the Northern Hemisphere from satellite observations of hydroxyl, Ann. Geophys., Vol.25, pp. 2203-2215,, 2007.


  1. Verronen, P.T., Seppälä, A., Kyrölä, E., Tamminen, J., Pickett, H.M. and Turunen, E., Production of Odd Hydrogen in the Mesosphere During the January 2005 Solar Proton Event, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, 24, L24811, 2006. doi: 10.1029/2006GL028115
  2. Clilverd, M.A., Seppälä, A., Rodger, C. J., Thomson, N.R., Verronen, P., Turunen, E., Ulich, Th., Lichtenberger, J., and Stienbach, P., Modeling polar ionospheric effects during the October-November 2003 solar proton events., Radio Sci., 41, RS2001, 2006. doi: 10.1029/2005RS003290
  3. Clilverd, M A, Seppälä, A, Rodger, C J, Verronen, P T, Thomson, N R, Ionospheric evidence of thermosphere-to-stratosphere descent of polar NOx, Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 33, No. 19, L19811, 2006. doi: 10.1029/2006GL026727
  4. Rodger, C.J., Clilverd, M.A., Ulich, Th., Verronen, P.T., Turunen, E., Thomson, N.R., The Atmospheric Implications of Radiation Belt Remediation, Ann. Geophys., 24, 2025-2041, SRef-ID: 1432-0576/ag/2006-24-2025, 2006.
  5. Rodger, C.J., Clilverd, M.A., Verronen, P.T., Ulich, Th., Jarvis, M.J. and Turunen, E., Dynamic geomagnetic rigidity cutoff variations during a solar proton event, J. Geophys. Res., 111, A04222, 2006. doi: 10.1029/2005JA011395
  6. Seppälä, A., P.T. Verronen, V.F. Sofieva, J. Tamminen, E. Kyrölä, C. J. Rodger, and M.A. Clilverd, Destruction of the Tertiary Ozone Maximum During a Solar Proton Event, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L07804, 2006. doi: 10.1029/2005GL025571
  7. Verronen, P.T., Ulich, Th., Turunen, E., and Rodger, C.J., Sunset transition of negative charge in the D-region ionosphere during high-ionization conditions, Ann. Geophys., 24, 187-202, 2006.
  8. Verronen, P.T., Ionosphere-Atmosphere Interaction During Solar Proton Events, PhD thesis, University of Helsinki, Finnish Meteorological Institute Contributions, No. 55, 2006.


  1. Clilverd, M. A., C. J. Rodger, Th.Ulich, A. Seppälä, E. Turunen, A. Botman, N. R. Thomson, Modelling a large solar proton event in the southerns polar atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 110, A09307, doi:10.1029/2004JA010922, 2005.
  2. Verronen, P. T., A. Seppälä, M. A. Clilverd, C. J. Rodger, E. Kyrölä, C.-F. Enell, Th.Ulich, E. Turunen, Diurnal variation of ozone depletion during the October-November 2003 solar proton events, J. Geophys. Res., 110, A09S32, doi:10.1029/2004JA010932, 2005.
  3. Enell, C.-F., A. Kero, E. Turunen, Th.Ulich, P. Verronen, A. Seppälä, S. Marple, F. Honary, A. Senior, Effects of D-region RF heating studied with the Sodankylä Ion Chemistry model, Ann. Geophys., 23, 1575–1583, 2005.


  1. Verronen, P. T., E. Turunen, Th.Ulich, E. Kyrölä, Modelling the effects of the October 1989 solar proton event on mesospheric NO using a detailed ion and neutral chemistry model, Ann. Geophys., 20, 1967-1976, 2002.


  1. Ulich, Th., E. Turunen, A. Karinen, Global Change and Changing Upper Atmosphere -Observations, in "Long-term Changes and Trends in the Atmosphere", ed. G. Beig, Pune, India, 2001, (solicited review).


  1. Ulich, Th., E. Turunen, T. Nygrén, The Effective Recombination Coefficient in the Lower Ionosphere During Localised Precipitation of Auroral Electrons, Adv. Space Res., 25, 47-50, 2000.


  1. Ulich, Th., E. Turunen, A. Karinen, R. Kivi, E. Kyrö, Atmospheric Trends Above Finland: I. Mesosphere and Thermosphere, Geophysica, 35, 59-69, 1999.
  2. del Pozo, C. F., E. Turunen, Th.Ulich, Negative Ions in the Auroral Mesosphere During Strong Ion Precipitation Events, Ann. Geophys., 17, 782-793, 1999.


  1. Rietveld, M. T., E. Turunen, H. Matveinen, N. P. Goncharov, P. Pollari, Artificial periodic irregularities in the auroral ionosphere, Ann. Geophys., 14, 1437-1453, 1996.
  2. Schunk, R. W., J. J. Soika, Ionospheric models, Modern Ionospheric Science, eds. H. Kohl, R. Rüster, K. Schlegel, European Geophysical Society, Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany, 181-215, 1996.
  3. Turunen, E., H. Matveinen, J. Tolvanen, H. Ranta, D-region ion chemistry model, STEP Handbook of Ionospheric Models, ed. W Schunk, 1-25, 1996.


  1. Schunk, R. W., J. J. Soika, The lower ionosphere at high latitudes, The Upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere: A Review of Experiment and Theory, Geophysical Monograph 87, eds. R. M. Johnson, T. L. Killeen, American Geophysical Union, Washington, USA, 37-47, 1995.


  1. Turunen, E., High Latitude D-Region Studies by Incoherent Scatter Radar Measurements, Ph.D. thesis, Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory Report No. 52, Sodankylä, Finland, 1993.
  2. Turunen, E., EISCAT incoherent scatter radar observations and model studies of day to twilight variations in the D-region during the PCA event of August, 1989, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 55, 767, 1993.


  1. Hargreaves, J. K., The Solar-Terrestrial Environment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992.


  1. Burns, C. J., E. Turunen, H. Matveinen, H. Ranta, J. K. Hargreaves, Chemical modelling of the quiet summer D- and E-regions using EISCAT electron density profiles, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 53, 115-134, 1991.

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