Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory


Incoherent Scatter Radar Fact Sheet (pdf)

Radio Wave Propagation

Hunsucker, R. D., & J. K. Hargreaves, The High-Latitude Ionosphere and its Effects on Radio Propagation, Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Levis, C. A., J. T. Johnson, F. L. Teixera, Radiowave propagation, John Wiley & Sons, 2010.

Radar and (Phased-Array) Antennae

Craeye, C., and D. González-Ovejero, A review on array mutual coupling analysis, Radio Sci., 46, RS2012, doi:10.1029/2010RS004518, 2011.

Hysell, D., Antennas and Radar for Environmental Scientists and Engineers, Cambridge University Press, 2018.

Levanon, Radar Principles, John Wiley & Sons 1988.

Mahafza, Radar Signal Analysis and Processing Using MATLAB, Chapman & Hall, 2008.

Richards, M. A., Scheer, J. A., Holm, W. A. (eds), Principles of Modern Radar - Basic Principles, Scitech Publishing, 2010.

Rihaczek, Principles of High Resolution Radar, Artech House, 1996.

Skolnik, Introduction to radar principles, McGraw-Hill, 2002.

Skolnik, Radar Handbook, McGraw-Hill, 2008.

Stimson, Introduction to Airborne Radar, Artech, 1998.

Thompson, A. R., Moran, J. M., Swenson Jr., G. W., Interferometry and Synthesis in Radio Astronomy, 3rd ed., Astronomy and Astrophysics Library, Springer, 2017. (Open Access).


Brekke, A., Physics of the Upper Atmosphere, John Wiley & Sons, 1997.

Jursa, A. S., Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Environment, 4th ed., Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, USA, 1985.

Hargreaves, J. K., The Solar-Terrestrial Environment, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992.

Kelley, M. C. 1989; 2009. The Earth's ionosphere: Plasma physics and electrodynamics, Intern. Geophys. Series, vol 43. San Diego: Academic Press. (Hardcover - 2009-05-19)

Rishbeth, H., & O. K. Garriot, Introduction to Ionospheric Physics, Academic Press, 1969.

Thayer, J. P., J. Semeter, The Convergence of Magnetospheric Energy Flux in the Polar Atmosphere, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 66, 807-824, 2004.

Incoherent Scatter

Alcaydé, D., Incohent Scatter Theory, Practice and Science, Collection of lectures given in Cargese, Corsica, 1997, EISCAT Tech Rep 97/53, 1995.

Dougherty, J. P. and D. T. Farley, A Theory of Incoherent Scattering of Radio Waves by a Plasma, Proc. Royal Society of London A, 259, no. 1296, pp. 79-99, 1960.

Dougherty, J. P. and D. T. Farley, A Theory of Incoherent Scattering of Radio Waves by a Plasma, 3. Scattering in a Partially Ionized Gas, J. Geophys. Res., 68, 19, pp. 5473-5486, 1963.

Evans, J. V., Theory and Practice of Ionosphere Study by Thomson Scatter Radar, Proc. IEEE, 57, No 4, 496-530, 1969.

Farley, D. T., A Theory of Incoherent Scattering of Radio Waves by a Plasma, 4. The Effect of Unequal Ion and Electron Temperatures, J. Geophys. Res., 71, 17, pp. 4091-4098, 1966.

Farley, D. T., J. P. Dougherty, and D. W. Barron, A Theory of Incoherent Scattering of Radio Waves by a Plasma II. Scattering in a Magnetic Field, Proc. Royal Society of London A, 263, pp. 238-258, 1961.

Killeen, T. L., P. B. Hays, G. R. Carignan, R. A. Heelis, W. B. Hanson, N. W. Spencer, and L. H. Brace, Ion-Neutral Coupling in the High-Latitude F Region: Evaluation of Ion Heating Terms from Dynamics Explorer 2, J. Geophys. Res., 89, 7495-7508, 1984.

Kudeki, E., M. Milla, Incoherent scatter spectrum theory for modes propagating perpendicular to the geomagnetic field, J. Geophys. Res., 111, A06306, doi:10.1029/2005JA011546, 2006.

Lehtinen, M. S., Statistical Theory of Incoherent Scatter Radar Measurements, EISCAT Technical Note 86/45, EISCAT, Kiruna, Sweden, 1986. (pdf)

Milla, M., and E. Kudeki, Particle dynamics description of "BGK collisions" as a Poisson process, J. Geophys. Res., 114, A07302, doi:10.1029/2009JA014200, 2009.

Rishbeth, H., and P. J. S. Williams, The EISCAT Ionospheric Radar: the System and its Early Results, Quart. J. Royal Astr. Soc., 26, 478-512, 1985.

St.-Maurice, J.-P., C. Cussenot, W. Kofman, On the usefulness of E region electron temperatures and lower F region ion temperatures for the extraction of thermospheric parameters: a case study, Ann. Geophys., 17, 1182-1198, 1999.

Swartz, W. E. and D. T. Farley, A Theory of Incoherent Scattering of Radio Waves by a Plasma, 5. The Use of the Nyquist Theorem in General Quasi-Equilibrium Situations, J. Geophys. Res., 84, A5, pp. 1930-1932, 1979.

VanTrees, H. L., Detection, Estimation, and Modulation theory, part III, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1971.

Wannberg., G., I. Wolf, L.-G. Vanhainen, K. Koskenniemi, J. Röttger, M. Postila, J. Markkanen, R. Jacobsen, A. Stenberg, R. Larsen, S. Eliassen, S. Heck, and A. Huuskonen, The EISCAT Svalbard radar: A case study in modern incoherent scatter radar system design, Radio Sci., 32, 2283-2307, 1997.

Inverse Methods

Aster, Borchers and Thurber, Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems, International Geophysics Series, Academic Press, 2005

Tarantola, A., Inverse Problem Theory, Siam, 2005. (link)

Numerical Methods

Press, W. H., S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran 77: The Art of Scientific Computing, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992. (also other editions and other language versions, there's also a second volume)

Links and Resources

Incoherent Scatter Radar Workshop, Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, 18-23 July 2011: US/NSF website at MIT Haystack; European/EISCAT website at SGO.

Incoherent scatter spectrum simulation by John Holt, MIT Haystack.

Using Madrigal Practically and Productively, instructions by Bill Rideout, MIT Haystack.

Explanation on phased arrays without equations, series of posts on the KAIRA blog.

Radar Schools


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