Ionospheric Pumping Experiments on the Second Electron Gyro-harmonic in Alaska

Kosch, M.1, Bristow, B.2, Djuth, F.3, Heinselman, C.4, Hughes, J.5, Gustavsson, B.6, Kendall, E.4, Marshall, B.7, McCarrick, M.8, Mishin, E.9, Mutiso, C.5, Nielsen, K.10, Oyama, S.11, Pedersen, T.12, Senior, A.1, Sentman, D.2, Spaleta, J.2, Starks, M.12, Wang, W.10, Watkins, B.2 and Wong, A.10

1 Communication Systems, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK
2 Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, USA
3 Geospace Research, El Segundo, California, USA
4 SRI International, Menlo Park, California, USA
5 Physical Sciences, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida, USA
6 Deparment of Physics and Technology, University of Tromsø, Norway
7 STARLab, Stanford University, California, USA
8 BAE Systems, Washington DC, USA
9 Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, USA
10 HIPAS Observatory, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA
11 Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Japan
12 Space Vehicles Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts, USA

Results are reported from the night-time “artificial aurora” ionospheric pumping experiments on the second electron gyro-harmonic (2.85 MHz) at the HAARP (Gakona) and HIPAS (Fairbanks) facilities in Alaska. Diagnostics include the Kodiak HF SuperDARN radar, which scans over HAARP and HIPAS, the MUIR UHF radar at HAARP, the new Poker Flat AMISR UHF radar near HIPAS, and a variety of optical instruments. Some novel results include: (1) An asymmetric response maximum for pump frequencies just above the second gyro-harmonic as opposed to the minimum at higher gyro-harmonics, (2) The co-existence of the parametric decay and thermal parametric instabilities, (3) The first observation of pump-induced lower-hybrid waves, (4) The first optical observation of the temporal evolution of the pump beam self-focusing effect, and (5) Incoherent scatter measurements of plasma temperature within the heated ionospheric volume when pumping on the second gyro-harmonic.